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What are the sources of food pollution

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food contamination
harmful viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites contaminate food. The main hazards of this kind of pollution are: ① make food corrupt, deteriorate and mildew, and destroy its edible value; ② When harmful microorganisms reproduce in food, they produce toxic metabolites, such as bacterial exotoxin and mycotoxin, which can cause various acute and chronic poisoning after human intake; ③ Bacteria enter the human body with food, decompose and release endotoxin in the intestine, causing people to be poisoned; ④ Bacteria enter the human body with food and invade tissues, causing human infection and disease
types of pollutants
microorganisms contaminating food do not come from the food itself, but from the environment where the food is located
the experiment of gravy spoilage made by L. Pasteur in 1862 has proved this point excellently. From the biological point of view, the microorganisms that pollute food can be divided into: ① saprophytic microorganisms that can reproduce on food and take the organic matter that decomposes food as the source of nutrients; ② Parasitic microorganisms that can parasitize in human body or animals and plants as food raw materials, and take organic matter in vivo as the source of nutrients; ③ Microorganisms that can not only rot on food, but also parasitize in human body, which is the result of selection and adaptation of microorganisms in the process of long-term evolution. All kinds of foods have their special biological, physical and chemical properties. Under certain external conditions, they are only suitable for the survival of some microorganisms. Therefore, microorganisms can reproduce in large numbers and cause pollution only under the conditions suitable for their survival. This is the difference between food biological pollution and chemical pollution
pollution route
food biological pollution sources are soil, water body, dust floating in the air, gastrointestinal tract, nasopharynx and skin excreta of people and animals, which either directly pollute food, or indirectly pollute food through people, rats, insects, processing equipment, utensils, containers, means of transport, etc. If animals and plants are infected and sick, the food processed from such animals and plants will also contain a large number of microorganisms, which is called primitive pollution. Of course, the original pollution is also the direct or indirect pollution of driven plants and plants by microorganisms. The way in which microorganisms contaminate food depends on their biological properties and their ability to survive in the environment. Saprophytic or both saprophytic and parasitic microorganisms have strong viability in the environment and can directly or indirectly pollute food; Parasitic microorganisms have weak survival ability in the environment and can only directly pollute food or remain in food in the way of original pollution
to prevent and control food biological pollution, we should first pay attention to the environmental sanitation of the production area of food raw materials, avoid environmental pollution by human and animal feces, sewage and organic waste, prevent and control animal and plant diseases and insect pests as food raw materials, and prevent food pollution in all links such as harvest, processing, transportation, storage and sales. Secondly, when food may be contaminated by microorganisms, take measures to remove and kill microorganisms or inhibit their growth and reproduction, such as various high and low temperature and chemical disinfection, refrigeration and freezing, chemical anti-corrosion, drying, dehydration, salting, sugar stains, canning, sealed packaging, radiation treatment, etc. Combining these methods can eliminate or control biological pollution and ensure food quality

I think the most serious are animal pollution, hormones, heavy metals, etc; The second is plant pollution, land and water sources plus toxic chemical fertilizers.

1. Biological pollution includes bacteria, viruses, fungi and their toxins, parasites and their eggs, and food pollution by insects. 2. Chemical pollution mainly comes from agricultural chemicals such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers; Industrial “three wastes”; Abuse of food additives; Use containers and packaging materials that do not meet hygiene requirements; The production process and equipment do not meet the sanitary requirements, etc. 3. Radioactive contamination radioactive substances can directly or indirectly pollute food

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